πŸ– AC induction motors | How AC motors work - Explain that Stuff

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An induction motor is the most modest electrical machine from constructional point motors are widely used due to their rugged construction and simple design.


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4. Design of Three-phase Induction Motor - Electrical Machine Design [Book]
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Tesla Polyphase Induction Motors | AC Motors | Electronics Textbook
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Genetics Algorithms, Hybrid, Induction Motor, Efficiency Evaluation, Element Method. 1. Introduction. Nowadays, improving efficiency of electric motors and its​.


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Polyphase motors can be induction or synchronous. operating speed, power, and efficiency, among other parameters, are considered for design, there are The main components of an electric induction motor with squirrel cage rotor are.


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Induction Motor Design Principle. We all know that an electric motor is used for the conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy.


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Limbachiya, "Design and Optimisation Of 3-Phase Induction Motor," Recent Trends in Electrical and Electronics & Communication Engineering, 17thth April.


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Courses Cover Electric Machines, Power Electronics, Motors, NEC & More. Enroll!


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of from a DC battery, you need a different design of motor. The inside of an AC induction motor being rewound. When an electric motor wears out, or burns out, one option is to.


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The electric motor in such an application may utilize either an AC or DC permanent magnet motor design or an AC induction motor design. Regardless of the.


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NEMA (National Electrical Manufacturer's Association) in United States and IEC in Europe has classified the design of the squirrel cage induction.


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A primary consideration for induction motor designer is the design of motor with high starting torque, better efficiency and power factor. There are many design.


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More slip corresponds to more flux cutting the conductive disk, developing more torque. This circle is traced out by a counterclockwise-rotating electron beam. The and rpm, are the synchronous speed of the motor. The motor load determines the operating point on the torque curve. That is, one coil corresponds to an N-pole, the other to an S-pole until the phase of AC changes polarity. This should not be surprising if you are familiar with oscilloscope Lissajous patterns. The slots at the edge of the pole may have fewer turns than the other slots. Between a and b the two waveforms are equal to 0. This point 0. The coils are wound on an external fixture, then worked into the slots. If the moving magnetic lines of flux cut a conductive disk, it will follow the motion of the magnet. The stator in the figure above is wound with pairs of coils corresponding to the phases of electrical energy available. Nikola Tesla conceived the basic principles of the polyphase induction motor in and had a half horsepower watts model by By polyphase, we mean that the stator contains multiple distinct windings per motor pole, driven by corresponding time-shifted sine waves. When power is first applied to the motor, the rotor is at rest, while the stator magnetic field rotates at the synchronous speed N s. The distributed coils of the phase belt cancel some of the odd harmonics, producing a more sinusoidal magnetic field distribution across the pole. A short explanation of operation is that the stator creates a rotating magnetic field which drags the rotor around. This condition is analogous to an open secondary transformer. This current draw can present a starting problem for large induction motors. An induction motor is composed of a rotor, known as an armature, and a stator containing windings connected to a polyphase energy source as shown in the figure below. However, for larger motors, less torque pulsation and higher efficiency results if the coils are embedded into slots cut into the stator laminations figure below. Edge slots may contain windings from two phases. The misalignment with the stator slots reduces torque pulsations. The 2. As the rotor accelerates to within a few percents of synchronous speed, both torque and current will decrease substantially. Induction motors present a lagging inductive power factor to the power line.{/INSERTKEYS}{/PARAGRAPH} However, there is but one pole pair per phase. The current has decreased only slightly at this point but will decrease rapidly beyond this point. Induction motors are favored due to their ruggedness and simplicity. A stack of these is secured by end screws, which may also hold the end housings. Why is it so low? The individual coils of a pair are connected in series and correspond to the opposite poles of an electromagnet. That is, the phase belts overlap. In the figure above, the windings for both a two-phase motor and a three-phase motor have been installed in the stator slots. This group is called a phase belt see the figure below. This eliminates the brushes, arcing, sparking, graphite dust, brush adjustment and replacement, and re-machining of the commutator. It is the magnetic flux cutting the rotor conductors as it slips which develops torque. For 50 Hz power, it rotates at 50 rotations per second or rpm. Large industrial motors are 3-phase. Thus, a loaded motor will slip in proportion to the mechanical load. {PARAGRAPH}{INSERTKEYS}Most AC motors are induction motors. Insulation wedged between the coil periphery and the slot protects against abrasion. One way of creating a rotating magnetic field is to rotate a permanent magnet. The stator magnetic field rotates at 50 Hz. The rotation rate of a stator rotating magnetic field is related to the number of pole pairs per stator phase. The rotor consists of a shaft, a steel laminated rotor, and an embedded copper or aluminum squirrel cage , shown at b removed from the rotor. The squirrel cage conductors may be skewed, twisted, with respect to the shaft. For reference, the figure below shows why in-phase sine waves will not produce a circular pattern. If the rotor were to run at synchronous speed, there would be no stator flux cutting the rotor, no current induced in the rotor, no torque. As compared to a DC motor armature, there is no commutator. This induced rotor current, in turn, creates a magnetic field. The rotating stator magnetic field interacts with this rotor field. Rotor frequency is given by:. As the rotor speeds up, the rate at which stator flux cuts the rotor is the difference between synchronous speed N s and actual rotor speed N, or N s - N. The torque developed by the disk is proportional to the number of flux lines cutting the disk and the rate at which it cuts the disk. There are several basic induction motor designs showing considerable variation from the torque curve above. This is shown in the synchronous motor section. The theory of operation of induction motors is based on a rotating magnetic field. The result is the rotation of the squirrel cage rotor. The ratio of actual flux cutting the rotor to synchronous speed is defined as slip :. The frequency of the current induced into the rotor conductors is only as high as the line frequency at the motor start, decreasing as the rotor approaches synchronous speed. As the rotor starts to rotate the torque may decrease a bit for certain classes of motors to a value known as the pull-up torque. This is the lowest value of torque ever encountered by the starting motor. If there were no mechanical motor torque load, no bearing, windage, or other losses, the rotor would rotate at the synchronous speed. The current induced in the rotor shorted turns is maximum, as is the frequency of the current, the line frequency. If the disk were to spin at the same rate as the permanent magnet, there would be no flux cutting the disk, no induced current flow, no electromagnet field, no torque. Any motor torque load above the breakdown torque will stall the motor. Laminated rotor with a embedded squirrel cage, b conductive cage removed from the rotor. Thus, the disk speed will always fall behind that of the rotating permanent magnet, so that lines of flux cut the disk induce a current, create an electromagnetic field in the disk, which follows the permanent magnet. Slip will be only a few percents during normal operation. While we include numerous illustrations of two-phase motors for simplicity, we must emphasize that nearly all polyphase motors are three-phase. In actual large motors, a pole winding is divided into identical coils inserted into many smaller slots than above. Various standard classes or designs for motors, corresponding to the torque curves figure below have been developed to better drive various type loads. The laminations are coated with insulating oxide or varnish to minimize eddy current losses. With the disk restrained by a spring, disk and needle deflection is proportional to the magnet rotation rate. Both rotor and stator cores are composed of a stack of insulated laminations. The 2-phase induction motor stator above has 2-pairs of coils, one pair for each of the two phases of AC. The stator laminations are thin insulated rings with slots punched from sheets of electrical grade steel. Torque is proportional to slip , the degree to which the disk falls behind the rotating magnet. If a load is applied to the disk, slowing it, more torque will be developed as more lines of flux cut the disk. The rotor field attempts to align with the rotating stator field. The lines of flux cutting the conductor will induce a voltage, and consequent current flow, in the conductive disk. The stator field is cutting the rotor at the synchronous speed N s. The magnetic field will rotate once per sine wave cycle. An analog automotive eddy-current speedometer is based on the principle illustrated above. Though the rotor of an induction motor never achieves this speed, it certainly is an upper limit. In practice, this is two or three phases. The polarity of the electromagnet is such that it pulls against the permanent magnet. The rotating magnetic field is only cutting the rotor at 2. The key to the popularity of the AC induction motor is its simplicity as evidenced by the simple rotor figure below. The alloy used in the laminations is selected for low hysteresis losses. Such is the case for a 2-phase motor. The disk follows with a little less speed than the permanent magnet. Actual stator windings are more complex than the single windings per pole in the figure above. In the case of 60 Hz power, the field rotates at 60 times per second or revolutions per minute rpm. The short explanation of the induction motor is that the rotating magnetic field produced by the stator drags the rotor around with it. The current is high because this is analogous to a shorted secondary on a transformer. By induction motor , we mean that the stator windings induce a current flow in the rotor conductors, like a transformer, unlike a brushed DC commutator motor. The different designs are optimized for starting and running different types of loads.